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Toxicity values for CCA and BTEX

Toxicity Values from the Literature for Soil Invertebrates

Compound

Test

Test species

Ecotox value

Reference

As (V)

14 day survival

artificial soil

Eisenia andrei

adults

LC50 472 ppm Vaughan & Greenslade 1998
28 day reproduction

artificial soil

Folsomia candida

adults

NOEC 10 ppm

EC50 119 ppm

Vaughan & Greenslade 1998

growth/

reproduction

E. fetida

cocoon production

reduced by 56% at 68 ppm

Fischer & Koszorus 1992

Cr (VI)

60 day survival

Octochaetus

pattoni

LC50 15 ppm

LC75 2 ppm

Abbasi & Soni 1983

61 day survival in field

Pheretima posthuma

LC100 at 10 ppm

Abbasi & Soni 1981

2 wk growth

Eisenia fetida

LOEC 625 ppm

Molnar et al. 1989

Cu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 day survival

(artificial soil)

E fetida

LC50 643 ppm

Neuhauser et al. 1985

14 day survival

(artificial soil)

E. fetida

LC50 683 ppm

Spurgeon et al. 1994

14 day survival

(peat soil : 43% OC)

Octolasium cyaneum

LC50 2500 ppm

Streit and Jaggy 1983

14 day survival

(Rendzina soil : 14% OC)

Octolasium cyaneum

LC50 850 ppm

Streit and Jaggy 1983

14 day survival

(Brown soil: 3.2% OC)

Octolasium cyaneum

LC50 180 ppm

Streit and Jaggy 1983

14 day survival

(artificial soil)

E. fetida

LC50 836 ppm

Spurgeon and Hopkin 1995

8 wk survival

(artificial soil)

E. fetida

LC50 555 ppm

NOEC 210 ppm

Spurgeon et al. 1994

8 wk survival

E. fetida

LC50 640 ppm

Khalil et al. 1996

12 wk survival

Lumbricus rubellus

NOEC 150 ppm

LOEC 1000 ppm

Ma 1982

14 day growth

E. fetida

NOEC 32 ppm

LOEC 100 ppm

van Gestel et al. 1991

21 day growth

(artificial soil)

E fetida

EC50 601 ppm

Spurgeon & Hopkin 1995

6 wk growth

E. fetida

NOEC 1000 ppm

LOEC 2000 ppm

Neuhauser et al. 1984

6 wk growth (sandy soil: 5.7 % OC)

L. rubellus

NOEC 130 mg/kg

LOEC 370 mg/kg

Ma 1984

6 wk growth (loam soil: 5.5% OC)

L. rubellus

NOEC 370 mg/kg

Ma 1984

21 day reproduction

E. fetida

NOEC 29 ppm

Surgeon and Hopkin 1995

21 day reproduction (artificial soil)

Eisenia andrei

NOEC 120 ppm

LOEC 180 ppm

van Gestel et al. 1989

6 wk reproduction

E. fetida

NOEC 1000 ppm

LOEC 2000 ppm

Neuhauser et al. 1984

6 wk reproduction

(sandy soil: 5.7% OC)

L. rubellus

NOEC 54 ppm

LOEC 131 ppm

Ma 1984

6 wk reproduction (loam soil: 5.5% OC)

L. rubellus

NOEC 13 ppm

LOEC 63 ppm

Ma 1984

8 wk reproduction

E. fetida

NOEC 300 ppm

LOEC 500 ppm

Malecki et al. 1982

8 wk reproduction

Aporrectodea caliginosa

EC50 186 ppm

NOEC 50 ppm

LOEC 100 ppm

Khalil et al. 1996

8 wk reproduction

(artificial soil)

E. fetida

EC50 53.3 ppm

NOEC 32 ppm

Spurgeon et al. 1994

20 wk reproduction

E. fetida

NOEC 500 ppm

LOEC 1000 ppm

Malecki et al. 1982

reproduction

L. rubellus

EC50 122 ppm

Streit & Jaggy 1983

reproduction

A. caliginosa

EC50 68 ppm

Streit & Jaggy 1983

reproduction

Allolobophora chlorotica

EC50 51 ppm

Streit & Jaggy 1983

OC = organic carbon

 

Toxicity Values from the Literature for Terrestrial Plants

Compound

Species

 

NOEC

(mg/kg)

LOEC

mg/kg)

End point

Reference

As (V)

corn

28 day

loam sand

10

100

seedling wet weight

Woolson et al. 1971

lettuce 5 day

silica sand

11.6   germination Vaughan & Greenslade 1998

Cr (VI)

 

 

 

 

 

lettuce

14 day

loam

0.35

1.8

shoot wet weight

Adema & Henzen 1989

tomato

14 day

loam

3.2

6.8

shoot wet weight

Adema & Henzen 1989

oats

14 day

loam

3.5

7.4

shoot wet weight

Adema & Henzen 1989

soya

bean

3 day loam

10

30

shoot wet weight

Turner & Rust 1971

tomato

14 day

humic sand

10

21

shoot wet weight

Adema & Henzen 1989

oats

14 day

humic sand

11

31

shoot wet weight

Adema and Henzen 1989

Cu

 

 

lettuce 5 day

silica sand

<7.8   germination Vaughan & Greenslade 1998

Lettuce

5 day

silica sand

15.6

 

biomass

Vaughan & Greenslade 1998

bluestem

84 day

sand

  100 root & shoot weight Miles & Parker 1979

bush beans

17 day loam

100

200

leaf weight

Wallace et al. 1977

Toluene

 

 

 

 

 

corn

Clay

 

200

wet weight

Overcash et al. 1982

soya

bean

 

 

20 000

wet weight

 

soya been

Loam

pH = 4

 

2000

emergence

 

corn

 

 

20000

emergence

 

soya been

Loam

pH = 6

 

200

wet weight

 

corn

 

 

20000

 

 

References

Abbasi, S.A., Soni, R. 1983: Stress-induced enhancement of reproduction in earthworm Octochaetus pattoni exposed to chromium (VI) and mercury (II) - Implications in environmental management. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 22: 43-47.

Adema, D. M., Henzen, L. 1989: A comparison of plant toxicities of some industrial chemicals in soil culture and soiless culture. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 18:219-229.

Fischer, E., Koszorus, L. 1992: Sublethal effects, accumulation capacities and elimination rates of As, Hg, and Se in the manure worm, Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta, Lubricidae). Pedobiologia 36: 172-178.

Khalil,M.A., Abdel-Lateif, H.M., Bayoumi, B.M., van Straalen, N.M., van Gestel, C.A.M. 1996: Effects of metals and metal mixtures on survival and cocoon production of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. Pedobiologia 40: 548-556.

Ma, W-C. 1982: The influence of soil properties and worm-related factors on the concentration of heavy metals in earthworms. Pedobiologia 24: 109-119.

Ma, W.C. 1984: Sublethal toxic effects of copper on growth, reproduction and litter breakdown activity in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, with observations on the influence of temperature and soil pH. Environmental Pollution (Series A) 33: 207-219.

Malecki, M.R., Neuhauser, E.F., Loehr, R.C. 1982: The effects of metals on the growth and reproduction of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). Pedobiologia 24: 129-137.

Miles, L. J., Parker, G. R. 1979: Heavy metal interactions for Andropogon scoparius and Rudbeckia hirta grown on soil from urban and rural sites with heavy metal additions. J. Environ. Qual. 8:443-449.

Molnar, L., Fischer, E., Kallay, M. 1989: Laboratory studies on the effect, uptake and distribution of chromium in Eisenia foetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta). Zool. Anz. 223: 57-66.

Neuhauser, E.F., Malecki, M.R., Loehr, R.C. 1984: Growth and reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to sublethal concentrations of metals. Pedobiologia 27: 89-97.

Neuhauser, E.F., Lochr, R.C., Milligan, D.L., Malecki, M.R. 1985: Toxicity of metals to the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Biology of Fertile Soil 1: 149-152.

Overcash, R. M., Weber, J. B., Miles, M. L. 1982: Behaviour of organic priority pollutants in the terrestrial system: Di-n-butyl phthalate ester, toluene, and 2, 4 dinitrophenol. UNC-WRRI-82-171. University of North Carolina: Water Resources Research Institute.

Soni, R., Abbasi, S.A. 1981: Mortality and reproduction in earthworm Pheretima posthuma exposed to chromium (VI). Intern. J. Environ. Studies 17: 147-149.

Spurgeon, D.J., Hopkins, S.P., Jones, D.T. 1994: Effects of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc on growth, reproduction and survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny): Assessing the environmental impact of point-source metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental Pollution 84: 123-130.

Spurgeon, D.J., Hopkin, S.P., 1996: Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the growth, sexual development, and early cocoon production of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, with particular reference to zinc. Ecotox. Environ. Safety 35: 86-95.

Streit, B., Jaggy, A. 1983: Effect of soil tye on copper toxicity and copper uptake in Octolasium cyaneum (Lumbricidae). In: (Lebrun, Ph (Ed.) New Trends in Soil Biology, Ottignies Louvain la Neuve, pp 369-375.

Turner, M. A., Rust, R. H. 1971: Effects of chromium on growth and mineral nutrition of soybeans. Soil Sci.Soc.Am.Proc. 35:755- 758.

van Gestel, C.A.M., van Dis, W.A., Dirven-van Breemen, E.M. Sparenburg, P.M., Baerselman, R. 1991: Influence of cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol on growth and sexual development of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta; Annelida). Biol.Fertil.Soil. 12: 117-121.

van Gestel,C.A.M.; van Dis,W.A.; van Breemen,E.M.; Sparenburg,P.M. 1989: Development of a standardized reproduction toxicity test with the earthworm species Eisenia fetida andrei using copper, pentachlorophenol, and 2,4-dichloroaniline. Ecotox.Environ.Safety 18: 305-312.

Vaughan, G.T, Greenslade, P.M.  1998  Sensitive bioassays for risk assessment of contaminated soils.  Final report CET/IR 55.   Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Wallace, A., Alexander, G. V., Chaudhry, F. M. 1977 Phytotoxicity and some interactions of the essential trace metals iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, copper, an boron. Commun.Soil Sci.Plant Anal. 8:773-780.

Woolson, E. A., Axley, J. H., Kearney, P. C. 1971: Correlation between available soil arsenic, estimated by six methods and response of corn (Zea mays L.). Soil Sci.Soc.Am.Proc. 35:101-105.

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