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Title: Draft Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters

Author: Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand

Date of Publication: August 1998

Publisher: Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council & Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand

Document Type: Report in Five Volumes

Scope of Document: Significant revision and expansion of the ANZECC Australian Water Quality Guidelines 1992. Presents guidelines for the ambient water quality in Australia. The document includes non-toxic and toxic physico-chemical guidelines set out in a considerably more complex fashion than previous document. It also includes a new framework for the biological assessment of aquatic water quality and sediment quality guidelines Included with these guidelines are considerable support materials in several volumes.

Assessment: The draft guidelines are comprehensive compared to the 1992 version and will promote a more detailed assessment of ambient water quality. It will however, require a greater degree of sophistication by the user.

The use of the guidelines for the assessment of biological communities and ecosystems is complex and will be difficult to undertake without substantial biological data. Accordingly this approach may only be useful in more complex ERAs, where sufficient supporting documentation has been collected and where a likely adverse effect from the discharge of a contaminant is demonstrated from a preliminary or Tier 1 assessment.

Title: Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters

Author: Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council

Date of Publication: November 1992

Publisher: ANZECC

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Water quality guidelines for the management of water quality in Australia.

It sets out the background to the development of the guidelines, and the policy basis for their development. The guidelines are developed specifically to support the development of water quality management policies and objectives by ANZECC and the Australian Water Resources Council (AWRC).

It defines and distinguishes between water quality criteria (data that predict the chance or magnitude of a contaminant on a defined receptor), and guidelines (that translate the criteria into a form that can be used for management purposes).

It presents guidelines for the protection of aquatic ecosystems, recreational water quality, and agricultural and industrial water use and sets outs guidelines for assessing water quality.

Assessment: It provides a broad range of guidelines for the management water quality for various desired uses and clearly presents the criteria that were used to develop the guidelines. However, some caution is required in using the guidelines in New Zealand as there are some values that related specifically to Australian conditions (e.g. salinity for aquatic ecosystems protection and for irrigation water quality.) Also, the approach is predicated on the basis that protection of an individual species will ensure protection of other less sensitive species in that ecosystem. This may not always be the case.

Its coverage extends only to contaminants in the water column. It excludes for example, sediment quality guidelines and biological guidelines.

Recently updated by 1999 draft guidelines.

 

Title: Australian Standard AS4482.1 – 1997 Guide to the sampling and investigation of potentially contaminated soil Part 1: Non-volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Author: Standards Australia

Date of Publication: 1997

Publisher:  Standards Australia

Document Type:  Report

Scope of Document:  Includes an overview of the site investigation process, and discussion of preliminary and detailed site investigations.

Provides useful information on establishing data quality objectives, on the design of soil sampling programmes and on sampling protocols. It includes aspects of sample design not well covered in other texts. This includes for example, a discussion and associated look-up table on the number of sample points required to provide statistically defensible site characterisation, the use of validation sampling, and on methods for decontamination sampling equipment.

Assessment:  AS 4482.1-1997 provides useful guidance for the investigation and sampling of soil at contaminated sites. Apart from providing basic information on planning and undertaking site investigations, it provides useful additional sampling and analytical information that is often not present in generally accessible documents.

Generally applicable to NZ, but would need to be read in conjunction with NZ specific guidance.

 

Title: Health and Environmental Guidelines for Selected Timber Treatment Chemicals

Author: Ministry for the Environment & Ministry of Health

Date of Publication: June 1997

Publisher: Ministry for the Environment & Ministry of Health

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Provides advice and guidance on the assessment and management of timber treatment and sawmill sites. The guidelines set out criteria for timber treatment chemicals boron (B), Copper (Cu) Chromium (Cr), arsenate (As), and pentachlorophenol.

The document is presented in several parts, including methodologies and techniques for site investigation and the sampling and analysis of soil and water.

Soil and water acceptance criteria are proposed that aims primarily to protect human health. However, other criteria that are aimed to protect freshwater aquatic ecosystems are presented, and are derived from existing criteria proposed in other documents.

Assessment: The document provides some key information about the management of Cu, Cr and As as contaminants of concern. However, it is restricted to the protection of human health with limited attention to ecological effects. Despite the limitation in the scope of the document, useful summary information is presented on the ecotoxicity of Cu, Cr and As, in the aquatic environment

 

Title: Guidelines for Contaminated Sites Information Collection and Management

Author: Worley Consultants Ltd

Date of Publication: November 1996

Publisher: Ministry for the Environment

Document Type: Draft Report

Scope of Document: It provides guidance on legal and legislative requirements associated with the management of information on and about contaminated sites, including database development, information collection and dissemination.

It provides a broad outline of the information that may be required to be collected on a contaminated site, and the responsibilities of councils in terms of managing this information.

Assessment: It provides little information on risk assessment and is of limited relevance to this project. However, it does provide guidance on the use of data and information collected from a contaminated site through a risk assessment.

 

Title: Environmental Guidelines for Water Discharges from Petroleum Industry Sites in New Zealand

Author: Joint Working Group of the Ministry for the Environment, local authorities and petroleum marketing companies

Date of Publication: December 1998

Publisher: Ministry for the Environment

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Provides guidance on the management of petroleum sites to avoid or appropriately manage discharges into the aquatic environment. It outlines the regulatory requirements associated with operating a petroleum site, and provides guidance on site management practice aimed at avoiding or controlling discharges.

The report provides some information on the probabilities of certain release events occurring from petroleum sites, and presents several brief case studies on the likely ecological impacts of spills into several aquatic environments.

Assessment: With the exception of the appendices, this report provides little information on ERA from these sites.

 

Title: A Proposed Methodology for Deriving Aquatic Guideline Values for Toxic Contaminants.

Author: Ministry for the Environment

Date of Publication: June 1996

Publisher: Ministry for the Environment

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Sets out a proposed methodology for developing numerical guidelines for toxic, non-bioaccumulative contaminants in water. It reviews various techniques used for the development of guideline values and assesses these in the context of resource management in NZ, likely data availability.

It sets out broad method for setting criteria based on a three- tiered approach:

Tier 1: Use total benchmark concentrations as an initial screening level.

Tier 2: Use more complicated techniques to measure bioavailability; or

Tier 3; Determine bioavailability from site specific data.

In the absence of specific guidelines for toxic contaminants, the document recommends the use of the ANZECC Water Quality Guidelines (1992). It anticipates the revision of these guidelines in late 1997.

Assessment: Of limited relevance to ERA of contaminated sites. However, it is useful in providing some guidance for the development of aquatic criteria and the use of available benchmark criteria.

It sets in place a three tiered system for assessing aquatic impacts ranging from comparison of data to published criteria (Tier 1) through to developing site specific criteria where necessary (Tier 3).

 

Title: Guidelines for Assessing and Managing Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites in New Zealand

Author: Ministry for the Environment

Date of Publication: August 1999

Publisher: Ministry for the Environment

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Non statutory guideline on the management of petroleum contaminated sites in New Zealand. The guidelines propose a risk-based approach to site assessment and management, and include discussion on the following:

  • Hydrocarbon contamination fundamentals
  • Site assessment Tier 1 soil acceptance criteria 
  • Tier 1 groundwater acceptance criteria 
  • Development of site-specific acceptance criteria
  • Site management

Tier 1 soil and groundwater acceptance criteria are presented, with an emphasis on the protection of human health. The guidelines have not specifically developed ecological acceptance criteria, on the basis that most petroleum contaminated sites are located within environmental settings that often do not require a high degree of protection. However, despite this, the guidelines recommend the use of established criteria for the protection of aquatic ecosystems (ANZECC 1992).

The guidelines direct readers to Environmental Guidelines for Surface Water Discharges from Petroleum Industry Sites in New Zealand (developed by the Oil Industry Environmental Working Group (OIEWG) to address surface runoff into surface waters.

Module 6 presents a broad outline for developing site specific ecological – based acceptance criteria. It provides clear guidance on the methods that could be used for Tier 2 and 3 ERAs. Here Tier 1 assessment involves the identification of receptors and exposure pathways, using the Ecological Checklist presented in Appendix 4I. Tier 2 assessment involves comparison of contaminants concentrations at or near a likely receptor or point of impact with contaminants screening data. Finally Tier 3 assessment involves the collection and analysis of site specific data, predictive fate transport and exposure modelling, and considering complex ecosystems effects and interaction.

Assessment: The guideline sets out to provide guidance on the management of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites, with particular emphasis on protecting human health and safety. The guidelines consider that in only some more isolated cases that ecological impacts may require consideration, which is a reasonable assumption given the likely environmental settings of these facilities. However, given the scope of the document, some limited guidance is provided to assist a site investigator to recognise potential ecological impacts.

As ecological assessment checklist is provided as an appendix. The checklist is designed only to provide a broad initial assessment of habitats that could be affected by a contaminant release.

Despite the scope of the document, Module 6 provides useful guidance on the development of site specific ecological criteria based on a tiered approach using progressively more detailed site specific information.

No new ecological acceptance criteria are presented in the guidelines. However, Module 2 ranks related compounds in order of increasing ecological effect, and discusses the effects of soluble aromatic hydrocarbons on marine organisms at various concentrations.

 

Title: Guidelines for Assessment and Managing Contaminated Gasworks Sites in New Zealand

Author: Ministry for the Environment

Date of Publication: August 1997

Publisher: Ministry for the Environment

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Non statutory guideline on the management of gasworks sites in New Zealand.

  • Risk assessment forms the basis of the guidelines, with the report covering the following aspects
  • Risk assessment process
  • Role of risk assessment
  • Consultation
  • Roles and responsibilities for contaminated sites management

Assessment: The management approach adopted in the guidelines follows the ANZECC & NHRMC guidelines. It considers that risk assessment contains four components including:

  • Hazard identification;
  • Exposure assessment;
  • Toxicity assessment; and
  • Risk characterisation.

Risk management and risk communication are considered to be separate from risk assessment.

The report presents a clear outline of the risk assessment process recommended for assessing gasworks sites.

The guidelines set out three levels of risk assessment, viz:

  • Screening level assessment – comparison of measured contaminant concentrations with generic risk-based acceptance criteria or guideline values.
  • Qualitative or semi-quantitative risk assessment based on generic acceptance criteria, but including site specific consideration of exposure pathways (transport & fate) and the effects of land use controls that may impact or effects the risk to human health and the environment.
  • Quantitative risk assessment including analysis of data used to derive generic criteria and drawing on as much site specific data and information as possible.

The guidelines present both general and specific site investigation and assessment procedures. However, bearing in mind the scope of the report, the application of these techniques to other contaminated sites is somewhat limited.

Generic acceptance criteria are presented for contaminants of concern including BTEX and heavy metals. However, as heavy metals are not usually the limiting contaminants in a gasworks contaminated site, specific criteria for these have not been developed. The criteria have been developed for human health under several exposure settings largely related to agricultural, residential, commercial /industrial and recreational land uses.

Some broad guidelines on the application of generic soil criteria are provided. These allow for some flexibility in the way in which the criteria are used.

No criteria have been developed for other fauna or for flora, with limited attention paid to ecological considerations. The guidelines refer to the Victorian EPA Draft National Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (subsequently superseded by NEPM, 1998)

A key document for the assessment of risks to human health from contaminated gasworks sites. Ecological risk assessment is not covered in detail. The reader is referred to other more complete references.

 

Title: Discussion Document on Contaminated Sites Management

Author: Ministry for the Environment

Date of Publication: November 1995

Publisher: Ministry for the Environment

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Discussion document on liability issues associated with contaminated sites management.

Assessment: Of little direct relevance to ecological risk assessment

 

Title: National Rapid Hazard Assessment System for Potentially Contaminated Sites (Draft)

Author: Ministry for the Environment

Date of Publication: December 1993

Publisher: Ministry for the Environment

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: A methodology for evaluating contaminated sites in terms of setting priorities for further investigation on the basis of on actual or potential effects on human health and the environment.

Primarily designed to categorise several or many sites based on requirements or priorities for further action.

The assessment is undertaken in accordance with several categories designed to allow the consistent evaluation of sites.

These categories include:

  • Contaminant characteristics
  • Exposure pathways; and
  • Receptors

Evaluation or score sheets are included to allow for the consistent rating of these factors, with weighting factors provided to address aspects that are particularly sensitive.

The completed sheets provide an overall score, site category and priority for further investigation.

Although the report makes it clear that the method is not a risk assessment tool, it provides the final assessment in the form of a relative risk estimate.

Assessment: This methodology aims to prioritise contaminated sites in terms of gathering of further information. It is designed to assess or evaluate hazard potential as a first step. The report cautions against the use of this methodology other than an initial scoping exercise.

The method is based on the three categories outlined above, with exposure pathways restricted to ground water and surface water and direct contaminant contact pathways. As a result the receptors described in the methodology are restricted to people, domestic animals and aquatic systems in its broadest sense. The methodology is limited in terms of pathways and receptors other than those described in the report. Here any guidance on the use of the method becomes quite vague. For example, it outlines sensitive environments as a receptor to consider, but apart from referring the reader to the ecological districts and regions as mapped by McEwen (1987) provides little other support to help assess the significance or sensitivity of nearby habitats.

Overall, the method is useful for a broad screening assessment for potential risks of site contamination to a limited array of potential receptors over a restricted range of predominantly aquatic pathways.

The National Rapid Hazard Assessment System for Potentially Contaminated Sites is a useful tool to undertake a broad screening level assessment with the aim of setting priorities for further investigation. It is designed to support decisions of priorities for further action based on a subset of pathways and receptors.

 

Title: Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Contaminated Sites

Author: Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, National Health and Medical Research Council.

Date of Publication: January 1992

Publisher: ANZECC & NHMRC

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Management framework for the prevention assessment clean up and management of contaminated sites. Provides a broad policy statement on the management of contaminated sites, as well as information and guidance on the prevention of site contamination, and subsequent management of environmental risks.

The document includes definitions, strategic policy framework, assessment and clean-up (including preventative measures and decommissioning considerations), site investigation and risk assessment.

Assessment: Comprehensive policy document that sets-out NZ policy on contaminated site assessment and management. This document is cited in most subsequent national contaminated site management policy and technical reports.

The methodology adopted is similar to more recent methodologies proposed for contaminated site risk assessment (e.g. NEPM). However, the document covers a much broader range of site management techniques apart from risk assessment. As a result, both risk assessment and risk management aspects are addressed with varying levels of detail. This variable degree of detail makes it difficult to determine what level of emphasis is being placed on certain sections.

The Guidelines promulgate soil quality criteria and provides references for other criteria that may be acceptable for water air etc. Some of the supporting criteria (e.g. Dutch B Criteria) have been superseded.

Recommendations: Fundamental policy and technical document for contaminated site management and risk assessment in NZ. Risk assessment methodology is technically very sound but the scope of the document only allows for a brief discussion.

 

Title: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Ecological Risk Analysis: Tools and Applications

Authors: Various

Date of Publication: Various

Publisher: Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Document Type: Reports Various / Website

Source: http://www.hsrd.ornl.gov/ecorisk/ecorisk.html

Scope of Document: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) ecological risk analysis package comprises:

1. A background document describing the technical basis, appropriate application and acceptance of ecological screening benchmarks, in particular the ORNL benchmarks.

2. Toxicological screening benchmark reports containing chemical-specific information covering:

  • Aquatic biota;
  • Terrestrial wildlife (mammals and birds)
  • Terrestrial plants;
  • Sediment-associated organisms; and
  • Soil invertebrates and microbial processes.

A series of guidance documents covering a range of issues including guidance on performing ecological risk assessments, a range of exposure models, data quality objectives and guidance on developing preliminary remediation goals (PRGs).

Several examples of completed ecological risk assessments.

Assessment: The ORNL is a multi-program science and technology laboratory operated for the US Department of Energy by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation. The ORNL ecological risk assessment package has strong international credibility and is referred to in some EPA risk assessment documents, e.g. the EPA’s interim final guidance for ecological risk assessment for Superfund references the ORNL screening benchmarks.

The package was designed to facilitate the evaluation of chemical contamination at the Oak Ridge Reservation and other US Department of Energy facilities. It provides comprehensive technical guidance in identifying contaminants, media and receptors that may be at risk and may require further investigations. It is aimed at intermediate to advanced level practitioners carrying out Phase I site investigations and does not address wider risk management issues. However, there are recommendations for preliminary remedial goals for ecological end points.

benchmark criteria have been developed for a wide range of inorganic and organic "contaminants of concern" (COC), including metals, organochlorines and hydrocarbons. The package does not assess human health risks.

Many of the species that are assessed are not relevant to New Zealand ecosystems, however the methodology for developing the screening benchmarks could be applied in developing site-specific or New Zealand-specific guidelines.

The ORNL ecological risk assessment package is a comprehensive technical guide to conducting ecological screening and baseline risk assessments. The benchmark criteria are specific to North American species, however the methodology could be used to develop criteria for the New Zealand environment.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYSIS: TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS

Background Document

Sample, Bradley E., Glenn W. Suter II, Rebecca A. Efroymson, and Daniel S. Jones, A Guide to the ORNL Ecotoxicological Screening Benchmarks: Background, Development, and Application, May 1998, Revision 1.0. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

SCREENING BENCHMARK REPORTS

AQUATIC BIOTA:

Suter, G. W. II, and C. L. Tsao. 1996. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening of Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Aquatic Biota on Oak Ridge Reservation: 1996 Revision. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge

Environmental Management & Enrichment Facilities. 1998. Radiological Benchmarks for Screening Contaminants of Potential Concern for Effects on Aquatic Biota at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC, Oak Ridge

WILDLIFE:

Sample, B.E., D.M. Opresko, and G.W Suter II. 1996. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife: 1996 Revision. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge

TERRESTRIAL PLANTS:

Efroymson, R.A., M.E. Will, G.W. Suter II, and A.C. Wooten. 1997. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Contaminants of Potential Concern for Effects on Terrestrial Plants: 1997 Revision. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge

SEDIMENTS:

Jones, D.S., G.W. Suter II, and R.N. Hull. 1997. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Contaminants of Potential Concern for Effects on Sediment-Associated Biota: 1997 Revision. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge

SOIL INVERTEBRATES AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES

R.A. Efroymson, M.E, Will, and G.W. Suter II. 1997. Toxicological Benchmarks for Contaminants of Potential Concern for Effects on Soil and Litter Invertebrates and Heterotrophic Processes: 1997 Revision. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge

GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

UPTAKE OF INORGANIC CHEMICALS FROM SOIL BY PLANTS

Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. 1998. Empirical Models for the Uptake of Inorganic Chemicals from Soil by Plants. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC

BIOTA SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR INVERTEBRATES

Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. 1998. Biota Sediment Accumulation Factors for Invertebrates: Review and Recommendations for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC

IONIZING RADIATION ON TERRESTRIAL PLANTS & ANIMALS

Barnthouse, Lawrence W. 1995. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Terrestrial Plants and Animals: A Workshop Report. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN.

BIOACCUMULATION MODELS FOR SMALL MAMMALS

Sample, B.E., J.J. Beauchamp, R.A. Efroymson, and G.W. Suter,II. 1998. Development and Validation of Bioaccumulation Models for Small Mammals. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN.

BIOACCUMULATION MODELS FOR EARTHWORMS

Sample, B.E., J.J. Beauchamp, R.A. Efroymson, G.W. Suter,II, and T.L. Ashwood. 1998. Development and Validation of Bioaccumulation Models for Earthworms. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF PETROLEUM-DERIVED MATERIALS IN SOIL

Suter, G.W.,II. 1997. A Framework for Assessing Ecological Risks of Petroleum-Derived Materials in Soil. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN.

WILDLIFE EXPOSURE MODELS

Sample, B.E., M.S. Aplin, R.A. Efroymson, G.W. Suter, II and C.J.E. Welsh. 1997. Methods and tools for estimation of the exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN.

Sample, B.E., and G.W. Suter, II. 1994. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN.

GUIDE FOR SCREENING LEVEL ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS

Suter, G.W., II. 1995. Guide for performing screening ecological risk assessments at DOE facilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN.

APPROACH FOR PERFORMING ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS

Suter, G.W., II, B.E. Sample, D.S. Jones, T.L. Ashwood, and J.M. Loar. 1995. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 revision. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN.

PRGs FOR ECOLOGICAL END POINTS

Efroymson, R.A., G.W. Suter, II, B.E. Sample and D.S. Jones. 1997. Preliminary Remediation Goals for Ecological End points. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

RADIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE

Blaylock, B.G., M.L. Frank and B.R. O'Neal. 1993. Methodology for Estimating Dose Rates to Freshwater Biota Exposed to Radionuclides in the Environment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

CONCEPTUAL MODELS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS

Suter II, G.W. 1996. Guide for Developing Conceptual Models for Ecological Risk Assessments. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS

Barnthouse, L.W., and G.W. Suter II. 1996. Guide for Developing Data Quality Objectives for Ecological Risk Assessment at DOE Oak Ridge Operations Facilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

RISK CHARACTERIZATION FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

G.W. Suter II. 1996. Risk Characterization for Ecological Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

 

Title: Risk Assessment of Environmental Chemicals

Author: A Fan, R Howd and B Davis

Date of Publication: 1995

Publisher: Annual Reviews Inc. (Annual Reviews Pharmacol, Toxicol. 35: 341-368)

Document Type: Technical paper

Scope of Document: Deals with neurotoxicity assessment, immunotoxicity assessment, reproductive and developmental toxicity, genotoxicity, carcenogenicity, toxicokinetics and modelling.

Totally directed at human health and not of particular use for an ecological risk assessment.

 

Title: Risk Assessment Methods – Approaches for Assessing Health and Environmental Risks

Author: VT Covello and MW Merkhofer

Date of Publication: 1993

Publisher: Plenum Press

Document Type: Book

Scope of Document: The book is divided into the following chapters:

  • Introduction to risk assessment
  • Release assessment
  • Exposure assessment
  • Consequence assessment
  • Risk estimation
  • An evaluation of state of the art

The book was developed to bring together all of the methods for assessing risk into a common framework with a view to proving a comprehensive reference, evaluating and comparing available risk assessment methods and identifying their strengths and limitations, and providing guidance for planning and conducting risk assessments.

Assessment: Provides extremely useful guidance to the "novice to intermediate" investigator on site characterisation, identification of pathways and potential receptors and methods and models that it may be appropriate to use. It includes both ecological and human health pathways and receptors

Although it is five years from the date of publication, the basic information is still as relevant today as when prepared. It specifically addresses, in the general sense, the weaknesses, strengths and inconsistencies of the various types of model. Model development in the ensuing period may mean that some comments may no longer be true.

The information is considered to be applicable to the NZ environmental and resource management setting.

An important reference document when considering models.

 

Title: Risk Assessment of Chemicals – An Introduction

Author: CJ van Leeuwen ans JLM Hermens (Eds)

Date of Publication: 1996

Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Document Type: Book

Scope of Document: A comprehensive treatment of the subject under the following chapters;

  • General information
  • Emissions of chemicals
  • Transport, accumulation and transformation processes
  • Exposure modelling
  • Toxicity testing and human health
  • Ecotoxicological effects
  • Properties of chemicals and estimation methodologies
  • Procedures of hazard and risk assessment

Within the text there is generic treatment of exposure models, environmental fate and exposure models and effects and estimation models.

Assessment: This is the best book of its kind that I have discovered in the literature search which provides guidance to the "novice to intermediate" investigator on site characterisation, identification of pathways and potential receptors

Includes ecological and human health pathways and receptors and its broad but also specific nature makes it applicable to the New Zealand situation.

An extremely valuable resource document for the project.

 

Title: Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology

Author: GM Rand and SR Petrocelli (eds)

Date of Publication: 1985

Publisher: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation

Document Type: Book

Scope of Document: A treatise containing twenty three chapters covering toxicity testing, sub-lethal effects, specific chemical effects, chemical distribution and fate, and hazard evaluation.

Although this book was published more than ten years ago, the principles remain unchanged and there is an abundance of good guidance which is relevant to the New Zealand environmental and resource management setting.

The chapters on chemical distribution/fate and hazard evaluation include bioaccumulation, biotransformation, fate modelling, field validation chemical safety evaluation and effluent evaluation, are particularly relevant.

No particular models are referenced.

 

Title: Risk Assessment – Health - Environment

Author: I Andersson and T Lindwall (eds)

Date of Publication: 1996

Publisher: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Report 4595

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Summary report at the end of a four year project studying the health effects of air pollution.

 

Title: Risk: Analysis, Perception and Management

Date of Publication: 1992

Publisher: The Royal Society, London

Document Type: Book

Scope of Document: General reference text on Risk produced by commissioned study group of the Royal Society.

  • Introduction
  • Estimating Engineering Risk
  • Toxicity, Toxicology and Nutrition
  • Estimation of Risk from Observations on Man
  • Risk Perception
  • Risk Management

Assessment: Very limited treatment of ecological risk matters. However good general background to risk assessment concepts and practice.

Title: Risk

Author: J Adams

Date of Publication: 1995

Publisher: University College London Press

Document Type: Book .

Scope of Document: Based on research into risk, mainly related to road usage, deals with sociological and cultural theories of risk. Chapters on risk, patterns of uncertainty, errors, chance and culture, measuring risk, monetizing risk, road safety, the greenhouse effect, the risk society and managing risk better.

Assessment: Interesting treatise on acceptability of risk, where the author has attempted to strip much of the literature on risk of its "historical baggage" and many of its claims to "scientific" authority. Raises awareness of sociological aspects for scientists/managers/"mad" officials. Interesting background but not directly relevant to this project.

 

Title: US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Science Corner

Document Type: WWW site – atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/cx.html

Scope of Document: Developed to search the Internet for free information sources, in the public domain, which relate to environmental health issues of concern to ATSDR and to share global information sources on the linkage between human exposure to hazardous chemicals and adverse human health effects. Has a section on risk assessment and the Toxfaqs database on toxicity and human health effects.

Assessment: Human health focus, but useful in a generic sense. 

 

Title: RiskWorld

Document Type: WWW site – www.riskworld.com/

Scope of Document: Provides news and information on the identification, critical analysis and management of risks including human health and the environment, as well as economic, financial, social and political. Vast amount of information – links to professional organisations working in the areas, lists of publications, new software etc.

 

Title: Reporting on Risk – A Journalist’s Handbook on Environmental Risk Assessment

Author: Kamrin M, Katz D, and Walter M

Date of Publication: 1995

Publisher: Foundation for American Communication and National Sea Grant College

Document Type: WWW site – www.facsnet.org/report_tools/guides_primers/risk/main.html

Also available as a book ISBN 1 885756 08 9.

Scope of Document: Comprehensive but simplified breakdown of the risk assessment process and discusses the roles of risk management and risk communication – primarily directed at human health.

  • Risk Assessment
  • Exposure Assessment
  • Toxicity Assessment
  • Epidemiology –the science of people
  • Assessing the Study’s Validity
  • Risk Communication

Assessment: Overall, useful guidance on conducting a risk assessment. However, presented from a North American perspective and focused specifically on human health.

Title: EXtension TOXicology NETwork (EXTOXNET)

Document Type: WWW site – ace.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/ghindex.html

Scope of Document: Provides toxicological information via searchable datasets.

 

Title: Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network (ECDIN)

Document Type: WWW site – ulisse.ei.jrc.it/Ecdin/Ecdin.html

Scope of Document: Searchable chemicals database, generally useful but not specifically applicable to this project.

 

Title: EcoNet: Toxics, Hazards and Wastes Resources

Document Type: WWW site – www.econet.apc.org/toxic/

Scope of Document: Provides much information in toxicology field often by way of links to other sites. Sources of databases, material safety data sheets and organisations involved in work on toxic hazards etc.

Assessment: Useful data resource.

 

Title: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

Document Type: WWW site and gopher site gopher://gopher.undp.org:70/11/ungophers/unep/publications/mongrphs/mon_05

Scope of Document: Information on conventions, programmes and documents and monographs on Science – Risk Analysis and Environmental Policy Decisions. Links to International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC).

Assessment: Interesting comments on environmental risk assessment but nothing of specific assistance to this project.

 

Title: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)

Document Type: WWW site – www.setac.org/

Scope of Document: Provides information on SETAC activities meetings, publications, advisory groups etc. Several advisory groups of interest eg. Fate and Exposure modelling. Some recent publications reviewed elsewhere.

Assessment: Worthwhile site.

Title: Risk Assessment and Policy Association (RAPA)

Document Type: WWW site – www.fplc.edu/tfield/rapa.htm

Scope of Document: Provides information on the Association and publications – Risk: health, Safety and the Environment. Focus is on public and private initiatives to reduce impacts on the environment. Emphasis is on policy and regulatory approaches, to risk assessment and management.

Assessment: Not directly relevant to this project.

 

Title: OECD Chemicals Programme

Document Type: WWW site – www.oecd.org/ehs/chem2.htm

Scope of Document: Provides information on the chemicals programme – projects, publications, activities etc. Many activities in the fields of environment and health and safety and references to databases of chemicals. Work programme includes a publication on Ecological hazard/Risk Assessment schemes but this does not appear to have been produced yet.

 

Title: International Society for Exposure Analysis (ISEA)

Document Type: WWW site – www.isea.rutgers.edu/isea/isea.html

Scope of Document: Provides information on the Society including the Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epedimiology. Journal titles generally specific to exposure and not risk assessment.

 

Title: UK Institution of Chemical Engineers

Document Type: WWW site – http:/icheme.chemeng.ed.ac.uk/

Scope of Document: Provides general information about the institution and a useful list of publications. Nothing specific obtained from these that is relevant to ERA.

 

Title: Commission of European Communities (CEC) Environment Institute (EI) Joint Research Centre (JRC) Eurpoean Chemicals Bureau (ECB)

Document Type: WWW site – www..ei.jrc.it/ecb/ www.ei.jrc.it#EI and a number of others

Scope of Document: Several potentially relevant projects our outlined. However, none are of specific use at present. Developing European Union System for Evaluation of Substances (EUSES) a risk assessment support tool in a database for implementing EU Technical Guidance documents

Potential for useful output.

 

Title: Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment (ACRE)

Document Type: WWW site www/shef.ac.uk/~doe/

Scope of Document: Focus is on biotechnology and genetic modifications

Assessment: Nothing of particular relevance to ERA.

 

Title: Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of the Chlorinated Organic Chemicals

Author: (edited by) J Carey, P cook, J Giesy, P hodson, D Muir, W Owens, K Solomon

Date of Publication: 1997

Publisher: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Document Type: Report of workshop proceedings.

Scope of Document: Sources, distribution, transport and transformation, bioaccumulation and metabolism, modelling fate and transport, hazard assessment for terrestrial and aquatic animals, ecological risk assessment and management.

Specifically deals with chlorinated organic chemicals, which are outside the scope of the project.

 

Title: Ecological Risk Assessments of Contaminated Sediments

Author: (edited by) GR Biddinger, T Dillon, CG Ingersoll

Date of Publication: 1996

Publisher: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Document Type: Review book

Scope of Document: Australasian, European and North American perspective

Overview of sediment ecological risk assessment, risks to benthic species in product and technology development, critical applications (navigational dredging contaminated site cleanup), pertinent issues ( ecological relevance, methodological uncertainty)

Assessment: Useful background document.

 

Title: The Multi-media Fate Model: Vital Tool for Predicting the Fate of Chemicals

Author: (edited by) CE Cowan, D Mackay, TC Feijtel, D van de Meent, A Di Guardo, J Davies, N Mackay

Date of Publication: 1995

Publisher: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Document Type: Review report based on two workshop proceedings

Scope of Document: Systematic evaluation of Mackay-type multi media models with round robin comparisons of ChemCAN, HAZCHEM, SimpleBOX and CalTOX and guidance on model application.

 

Title: ECETOC Technical report No. 40: Hazard assessment of chemical contaminants in soil, revised Appendix 3

Author: European Chemical Industry.

Date of Publication: April 1992.

Publisher: European Chemical Industry.

Document Type: Technical report

Scope of Document:This report is a guide for use with the HESP 2.0 program and details applications of the model, descriptions of programs used in the model, descriptions of model parameters, and the literature basis behind the model.

 

Title: ECETOC Technical report No. 40: Hazard assessment of chemical contaminants in soil.

Author: European Chemical Industry.

Date of Publication: August 1990.

Publisher: European Chemical Industry.

Document Type: Technical report

Scope of Document: The report describes methods for assessing hazards to man and other organisms in the environment when exposed to soil contaminants resulting from past waste disposal, spills, leaks and local aerial pollution. The hazard assessment is based on the comparison of maximum tolerable exposure levels with estimated or measured environmental exposure levels.

Assessment: Aimed at assessing risk of contaminant exposure in humans but describes a process that can be applied to other organisms. The document presents a detailed mathematical model (HESP) for use in risk assessment, which at the time of printing was not validated. A step wise approach is presented and provides procedures for deriving measured exposure routes.

 

Title: Evaluation of risk-based approaches in environmental guideline and stand setting, Part 1 Executive and policy summary, for Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.

Author: Kemper J.B, Dr Kindzierski W, Dr Gaudet C, Dr Moore D.

Date of Publication: October 1997

Publisher: Kemper2 & Associates Inc.

Document Type: Executive and Policy Summary

Scope of Document: A review of existing protocols, standardised terminology, and overal framework for use of risk in CWES and eight policy recommendations for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.

Limited usefulness to New Zealand.

 

Title: EPA Region 10: Supplementary Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund.

Author: USEPA Region 10.

Date of Publication: June 1997

Publisher: USEPA.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: A summary of the important concepts from national risk guidance relevant to risk assessment in Region 10. The guideline is developed on a multilevel approach incorporating the following levels:

  • Scoping – development of a site model and preliminary site remediation goals;
  • Phase II – preliminary data anlaysis and site characterisation summary;
  • Phase III – remedial investigation and feasibility study reports.

Assessment: A complete ecological risk based methodology is presented using flow charts, checklists and graphical outputs to work through the process. Risk based screening levels are provided as well as derivation of measured end points.

 

Title: Environmental Assessments of Priority Substances Under the Canadian Environment Protection Act, guidance manual version 1.0.

Author: Environment Canada.

Date of Publication: March 1997

Publisher: Environment Canada.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: Legislative framework to deal with toxic substances in the environment. This document emphasises prevention and deals with all stages of a substances life cycle from research and development to manufacture, transportation and disposal. The framework uses a modification of USEPA process by incorporating characterisation of entry, exposure and effects that is required to determine whether a substance is toxic. A tiered approach is adopted, with tiers 1 and 2 being hyperconservative with respect to estimates of exposure and effects of a particular substance, while tier 3 is realistic on a site specific basis by comparing effect and exposure distributions rather than point estimates.

Assessment: The document clearly and concisely works through the assessment process from data collection and generation, problem formulation, entry, exposure, effects and risk characterisation. Complex substances are also addressed.

Comprehensive methodology for risk assessors conducting an ecological risk assessment.

 

Title: Contaminated Site Remediation Program: Risk Assessment Procedures Manual for Method 4.0.

Author: Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation.

Date of Publication: May 1998

Publisher: Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: This manual provides risk assessment procedures for use in preparing a human health and ecological risk assessment under the Oil and Other Hazardous Substances Pollution Control regulations. The document is intended to be complimentary with other published USEPA guidance documents, and is aimed to provide supplementary information relating to the harsh environmental conditions experienced in Alaska.

The document is designed to achieve a consistent technical approach, to minimise revision and re-submittal of risk assessment documents and assist in the regulatory site remediation decision-making process.

Assessment: Complete risk assessment approach relating to human health and ecological receptors, with a comprehensive methodology presented for all assessment processes. Simplistic with examples, lists of toxicity databases, checklists and presentation tables. Easy to follow approach to conducting ecological risk calculations, estimating exposure, and problem formulation of assessment end points.

Ecological components closely aligned with Proposed Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (USEPA, 1996), Framework for Ecological Risk Assessments (USEPA, 1992a), Ecological Risk Assessment for superfund: Process for designing and conducting Ecological Risk Assessments (USEPA, 1997a), and EPA Region 10 Supplemental Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (USEPA, 1997b).

Comprehensive methodology for conducting an ecological risk assessment. May provide a suitable base for establishing a document for the New Zealand situation, and is useful resource for ERA.

 

Title: Guidance for ecological risk assessment, Final.

Author: Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Waste Management & Cleanup Division, Cleanup Policy & Program Development Section.

Date of Publication: April 1998

Publisher: USEPA

Document Type: Guidance document.

Scope of Document: The department has developed a multilevel approach to determine whether investigation and remedial action is required in relation to ecological effects. Division of the ecological risk assessment process into four levels:

  • Scoping
  • Screening
  • Baseline, and
  • Field baseline

It has been prepared to meet the requirements of revised laws and to include ecological risk assessments in state cleanup programs where they are required. Included in the document are Screening Benchmark Tables for screening contaminants during a level II assessment.

Assessment: Detailed methodology of each of the four tier levels I – IV, with inclusion of checklists for each process and flow charts for process identification. Included in the Appendices are documents on the selection of end points, derivation of ecological target cleanup levels and comprehensive tables of screening benchmark values for a wide range of contaminants. ECO update papers by the US EPA illustrate and provide additional information on process steps.

Comprehensive description of the methodology and considerations required when conducting ecological risk assessments in Oregon. Is a useful document for combining with other USEPA documents when conducting and ecological risk assessment.

Title: Standard Provisional Guide for Risk-based Corrective Action.

Author: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

Date of Publication: July 1998

Publisher: ASTM

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: A provisional guide for development of risk-based corrective action (RBCA) program integrating ecological and human health risk-based decision making into a traditional corrective process. A flexible framework for corrective action, which has applicability to a wide range of sites and chemicals of concern. A tiered approach in which the analysis becomes more sophisticated with progression through the tiers.

Assessment: Detailed methodology for tiered evaluation, providing examples and methodology flowcharts. Provides risk based screening levels. Not specific to ecological risk assessment.

Important standard document which provides the basis for the approach of many other guidance documents.

 

Title: Framework for ecological risk assessment.

Author: USEPA

Date of Publication: February 1992

Publisher: USEPA

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: It describes the basic elements or framework, of a process for evaluating scientific information on the adverse effects of physical, biological and chemical stressors on the environment. Aimed at providing regulatory authorities with comprehensive guidance on methods for evaluating ecological risk.

Assessment: Detailed methodology for assessing ecological risk, includes topics on formulating a conceptual site model, ecosystem characterisation, exposure analysis, risk characterisation and determination of measured end points. No examples or toxicological information provided, which limits its usefulness to less experienced site investigators. Despite this limitation, it is a comprehensive ERA reference document.

 

Title: Application of ecological risk assessment to hazardous waste site remediation.

Author: Water Environment Federation (WEF)

Date of Publication: 1993

Publisher: WEF

Document Type: Papers derived from a workshop

Scope of Document: Several papers including articles on:

  • EPA’s framework for ecological risk assessment
  • Basic tools of ecological risk assessment
  • Designing an ecological risk assessment under the superfund program
  • Modeling
  • Ecological risk assessment for environmental management
  • Aquatic ecological risk assessment and clean up goals for metals arising from mining operations
  • Terrestrial and aquatic ecological assessment for a RCRA hazardous waste site
  • Evaluating ecological risks and developing remedial objectives at forested wetland systems in New England.

Assessment: Of limited relevance to ERA.

 

Title: National Environmental Protection Measure for assessment of site contamination, Draft Guideline 5: Ecological risk assessment.

Author: National Environment Protection Council (NEPC)

Date of Publication: March 1999

Publisher: NEPC

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: Describes the framework for ecological risk assessment for chemically contaminated soils that is aimed at state environmental agencies and risk assessors.

Assessment: A comprehensive technical guidance for initiating and conducting an ecological risk assessment. Discusses and describes the process of ERA, significance and derivation of generic soil and site specific ecological values, levels of ecological risk assessment, data requirements and risk management outcomes. A chapter on uncertainty associated with the mathematical risk assessment process and reporting requirements is also provided.

Suitable guidance document that is relevant for New Zealand, but is limited to soil contamination. Review

 

Title: Assessment of soil contamination: Draft National Environmental Protection Measure and Impact Statement.

Author: National Environmental Protection Council (NEPC)

Date of Publication: March 1999

Publisher: NEPC

Document Type: Impact statement/ policy review

Scope of Document: Document to review, update and formalise ANZECC/NHMRC Guidelines for the assessment and management of contaminated sites, in relation to policy and technical aspects of soil contamination.

Assessment: In terms of ecological risk assessment, a chapter is devoted to summarising the Draft National Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites, developed by the Victorian EPA in Australia. The chapter discusses the need for derivation of toxicity and bioavailability information relevant to the Australian setting. Environmental, social and economic impacts of a consistent ERA methodology are discussed.

This will lead to derivation of ecological investigation levels and regional ecological investigation levels (EIL’s and REIL’s), however these will need to be supported by a large data base of species specific information relevant to the Australian setting. The chapter concludes that at present meaningful ERA is not possible due to the lack of data, with the exception of high value assessments where they would support the cost of data acquisition.

Resulting methodologies may be relevant to the New Zealand situation, however consideration of differing species and ecosystems would require New Zealand to set up its own species specific database. 

Title: Ecotox Thresholds

Author: US Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication:

Publisher: US Environmental Protection Agency

Document Type: Database

Scope of Document: EPA has developed software that calculates Ecotox Thresholds (ETs) for selected chemicals commonly found in surface water, sediment and soil samples at sites. It can print out a table of ETs and their sources. The Ecotox Thresholds (ETs), and are defined as media-specific contaminant concentrations above which there is sufficient concern regarding adverse ecological effects to warrant further site investigation. ETs are designed to provide Superfund site managers with a tool to efficiently identify contaminants that may pose a threat to ecological receptors and focus further site activities on those contaminants and the media in which they are found. ETs are meant to be used for screening purposes only; they are not regulatory criteria, site-specific cleanup standards, or remediation goals. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification are not addressed.

The maximum concentration of each chemical at a site is compared to the medium-specific ET to evaluate whether further risk assessment for the chemical is warranted. The ET software calculates site-specific ETs by adjusting for pH and hardness in surface water and total organic carbon in sediment. The software can also compare the site-specific ETs to the concentrations detected at the site.

The January 1996 ECO Update on ETs (EPA 540/F-95/038) describes, in detail, how to calculate and use ETs (PDF file).

ET software have been compressed into a single file (ECOTOX.ZIP) that can be downloaded. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/oerr/r19/ecotox/index.html

 

Title: ECOTOX Database (AQUIRE, PHYTOTOX, and TERRETOX) (Non-VMS Data)

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: August 1996

Publisher: ECOTOX Database (AQUIRE, PHYTOTOX, and TERRETOX) (Non-VMS Data) (on magnetic tape and CD-ROM) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mid-Continent Ecology Division

Document Type: Database

Scope of Document: This datafile is an integration of three existing EPA datafiles, AQUIRE, Phytotox, and Terretox. It includes toxicity data, derived predominantly from the peer-reviewed literature, for aquatic organisms, terrestrial plants and wildlife species, respectively. Each Ecotox test record contains information about the chemical, organism, exposure condition and observed effect under which the toxicity test was conducted. AQUIRE (Acquatic Toxicity Information Retrieval) developed in 1981 through efforts at the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, MN (MED-Duluth), is a comprehensive summary of available aquatic toxicity data. Currently, AQUIRE includes more than 140,000 toxic effect records for 5,900 chemicals and 2,900 freshwater and marine organisms abstracted from more than 10,000 publications.

AQUIRE includes lethal, sublethal, and residue effects data for a single-chemical exposures conducted in a field or laboratory setting through the first quarter of publication year 1996. AQUIRE does not include in vitro exposures, mixture and effluent exposures, or sediment exposures that do not report water concentrations. Phytotox, developed through efforts at the U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Western Ecology Division, (WED) in Corvalis, OR, is a database of toxic effects records for terrestrial vascular wild plant species (native or introduced) or agricultural species. Phytotox includes lethal and sublethal effect data through publication year 1991, but does not include results from residue studies.

Currently, the database contains more than 48,000 effect records for 900 species and 1,500 chemicals, extracted from 2,600 publications. Terretox (Terrestrial Toxicity Database) was also developed through efforts at the WED, and includes toxicity data for wildlife species. Lethal, sublethal and residues effects data through publication year 1992 are included in Terretox. Terretox currently includes more than 38,000 data records for 240 species and 1,056 chemicals, abstracted from 529 publications. Ecotox also includes the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Ecological Effects Database, which contains toxic effects data categorized as acceptable for fulfillment of pesticide registration and re-registration guideline requirements as explained under FIFRA Subdivision E, Parts 158.145 and 158.150.

Assessment: Comprehensive toxicological database, that is accessible on-line (refer Section 4.0). Suitable for experienced site investigators familiar with using ecotoxicological data.

Title: Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites in Europe

Author: Paul Nathanail et al

Date of Publication: 1998

Publisher: Caracas

Scope of Document: It summarises the conclusions and recommendations drawn by CARACAS scientists for various practical and research areas related to risk assessment for contaminated land. It is a unique reference for the practical state-of-the-art on risk assessment in Europe, and outlines perceived research needs in the context of current approaches for contaminated land risk assessment in European countries.

Volume 1 - Scientific Basis (available now)

Volume 2 - Policy Frameworks (available in September 98)

Volume 1 focuses on scientific aspects of risk assessment and on research needs. Based on analysis of the current situation priority research needs have been identified and classified into two main categories: the nature of contaminated land, which deals with the characterisation of soil pollution including its impact on water resources and other parts of the environment; and the relationship between soil contamination and fitness for use, which deals with the conditions for sustainable landuse in urban and rural areas.

The policy frameworks in which risk assessment and risk management are carried out in the participating countries will be described in Volume 2 (available in Sept. 98).

Title: A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment At Contaminated Sites in Canada: Review and Recommendations.

Author: Environment Canada.

Date of Publication: 1994

Publisher: Ecosystem Conservation Directorate, National Contaminated Sites Remediation Program.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: The framework is designed to promote consistency in site assessment and remediation in Canada, relating to ecological risk. Human health risk is not considered in this document. The key components of the assessment are: exposure assessment, receptor characterisation, hazard assessment and risk characterisation. Its goal is for the process to result in remedial decisions and activities for sites where such action is needed.

A tiered approach is considered:

Level I – screening and characterisation by simple qualitative or comparative methods;

Level II – derivation of semi-quantitative data including environmental methods and models, with an increased emphasis on data collection and priority issues determined in the Level I assessment;

Level III – site specific data and predictive modeling to derive quantitative information on complex ecosystem responses. Chronic effects, interactions between chemicals and ecosystem level studies are encompassed in this assessment.

Assessment: The tiered approach methodology is comprehensively described and flow diagrams, charts and checklists are used through the text. The document describes the entire process along the lines of human health risk assessment with: problem definition, exposure assessment, receptor characterisation, hazard assessment, risk characterisation and application of the tiered approach under US regulations. Data requirements of each phase are clearly defined by way of tables and flow charts.

Recommendations: The system is compatible with other tiered approach guidance documents produced in the United States. It is likely to be useful as a base document for site investigators in New Zealand, provided that the Canadian regulatory requirements are recognised

 

Title: Guidance for Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments Under Texas Risk Reduction Program (Draft).

Author: Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC).

Date of Publication: November 1996

Publisher: Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (Office of Waste Management)

Document Type: Guidance document.

Scope of Document: The document is designed to provide guidance to ensure consistent and technically defensible ecological risk assessments are conducted within TNRCC’s corrective action programs. It is intended to be site specific, and used in conjunction with human health components.

Assessment: Three tiered approach to ecological risk assessment is proposed that is consistent with the human health risk assessment process, to evaluate the potential risk to ecological receptors at corrective action sites. The tiered approach avoids quantitative assessment by utilising existing criteria. It recognises that crops and livestock are potential ecological receptors which should be protected. The three components include:

Tier I – ecological assessment checklist

Tier II – screening level ecological risk assessment (3 levels)

Level A – screening assessment using established ecological benchmarks

Level B – screening assessment using toxicity reference values

Level C – screening assessment reducing the hazard quotient

Tier III – quantitative ecological risk assessment.

The quantitative risk assessment process section provides a comprehensive methodology for conducting an ecological risk assessment. Appendices include ecological assessment checklists for the entire process, guidance on conducting literature searches and dose conversion equations.

Recommendations: A key document for risk assessors, which is consistent with the tiered approach to risk management and corrective action.

 

Title: Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessment At Hazardous Waste Sites and Permitted Facilities, Part A: Overview.

Author: California Environmental Protection Agency, California Department of Toxic Substances Control, Human and Ecological Risk Division

Date of Publication: July 1996

Publisher: California Environmental Protection Agency

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: To provide a suggested framework and conceptual model for the approach to, and organisation and documentation of:

scientifically based estimation of the nature and extent of adverse impacts on biota from present or future exposure to toxicants;

scientifically based estimation of concentrations of chemicals in air, water, soil, sediment that do not adversely effect the biota; and

consideration and incorporation of findings and conclusions of the assessment to remedial design and action.

Relates to environmental risk at hazardous waste sites and hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities.

Assessment: Outlines a staged process starting with a scoping assessment which consists of chemical, physical and biological site characterisation and identification of complete exposure pathways. Then a Phase I – III methodology is used to progress through predictive ecological risk assessment, validation study and an impact assessment. Flow charts for each step of the ecological risk assessment process are provided.

It provides useful guidance, some of which can be applied in New Zealand.

 

Title: Risk-Based Corrective Action: Tier 1 Guidance Manual.

Author: Johnson, P.C., DeVaull, G.E., Ettinger, R.A., MacDonald, R.L., Stanley, C.C., Westby, T.S., and Connor, J.

Date of Publication: July 1993

Publisher: Shell Oil Company, Houston, TX.

Document Type: Guidance document associated with RBCA model

 

Title: Emergency Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action Applied at Petroleum Release Sites.

Author: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

Date of Publication: 1995

Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTME-1739, Philadelphia, PA.

Document Type: Guidance document for RBCA model

 

Title: ORNL Guidance documents

Author: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Date of Publication: Various

Publisher: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Document Type: Reports available on the ORNL Internet Website

 

Title: Ecological Risk Assessment.

Author: Suter, G.W.,II.

Date of Publication: 1993.

Publisher: Lewis Pub., Boca Raton, Florida.

Document Type: Text. 

 

Title: Risk Characterization for Ecological Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites.

Author: Suter, G.W.,II.

Date of Publication: 1996.

Publisher: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 46 pp, ES/ER/TM-200

Document Type: Technical report available here

 

 

Title: A Framework for Assessing Ecological Risks of Petroleum-Derived Materials in Soil.

Author: Suter, G.W.,II.

Date of Publication: 1997

Publisher: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN. 55pp, ORNL/TM-13408

Document Type: Technical report available here

 

Title: Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Volume II, Environmental Evaluation Manual, Interim Final.

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: 1989

Publisher: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA/540/1-89/001, NTIS No. PB90-155599.).

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document:

 

Title: Environmental Protection Agency Home Page 

Author: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Document Type: Internet Web Site

Scope of Document: The EPA home page provides information and on-line copies of EPA resources such as libraries, hotlines, information locators, publications, environmental test methods and guidance. It also highlights recent rules, regulations, and legislation coming through the pipeline and links to the following two key pages:

EPA Publications - www.epa.gov/nceiphom/

This page is produced by the National Center for Environmental Publications and Information (NCEPI). The user can view and download publications, search the national publications catalog, and order EPA publications on-line.

Superfund Home Page - www.epa.gov/superfund

This page specifically showcases work being done in the Superfund office of EPA and includes on-line copies of many types of remedial documents such as fact sheets and guidance. Information on "hot" topics is also provided to keep users abreast of the latest developments in legislation, regulations, cleanup progress, and technologies.

Assessment: Useful source of information online, with numerous links to other RA and ERA-specific homepages. Best suited to experienced site investigators, or those with specific information requirements.

 

Title: Department Of Energy Home Page 

Author: Department Of Energy

Date of Publication:

Publisher: Department Of Energy

Document Type: Internet Web Site

Scope of Document: The DOE home page provides both an electronic exchange initiative, in which users can exchange scientific and technical documents, and a resources database. The home page can connect the user to applicable remedial selection sites such as the following sites:

Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. FUSRAP provides information on the application of innovative technologies and the site provides on-line access to the latest technical papers.

Clearinghouse for Training, Education, and Development wastenot.inel.gov/cted/

The DOE Learning System maintains this site that provides information on the latest publications, guidance, and learning resources in remedy selection at Federal facilities sites.

 

Title: Annual Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST) 

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: 1997

Publisher: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 540/R-94/036.

Document Type:Tables

Scope of Document: HEAST users include individuals from the EPA, other Federal agencies, States, and contractors who are responsible for the identification, characterization, and remediation of sites contaminated with hazardous materials. In this document, slope factors are calculated by EPA to assist HEAST users with risk-related evaluations and decision-making at various stages of the remediation process.

 

Title: Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) for IBM PC Microcomputers and IBM PC/AT Microcomputers.

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: 1988

Publisher: . U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. EPA DF/DK-88/050, PB88-215892; EPA/DF/DK-88/049, PB88-215884.

Document Type: Database

Scope of Document: The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an on-line database of toxicity

information that is updated monthly. IRIS provides quantitative human health carcinogenic/hazard data, Ambient Water Quality Criteria, and Maximum Contaminant Levels. This database is EPA’s preferred source of toxicity data. Chemicals added to IRIS are reviewed in an Agency-wide process and represent a consensus on the toxicological data for each record.

Available from NTIS, or online

Assessment: It is a comprehensive toxicological database that is accessible and is appropriately quality assured. Valuable data source for experienced site assessors.

 

Title: Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA/630/R-95/002F

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Date of Publication: April 1998

Publisher: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: Developed as part of an interoffice guidelines development program by a technical panel of the Risk Assessment Forum. These guidelines expand upon previous risk assessment guidance, and are designed to help improve the quality of ecological risk assessments at EPA, while increasing the consistency of assessments among the Agency’s offices and regions.

Assessment: Comprehensive guidance document for ecological risk assessment. Refines the format detailed in the Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (USEPA, 1992). Describes the process from problem formulation, analysis through characterisation of exposure and ecological risk, risk characterisation through risk communication and risk management. Methods for characterisation of ecological effects, risk characterisation and risk estimation are comprehensively described. In the appendices detailed examples of building conceptual models, undertaking the analysis phase and determination of ecological adversity are provided.

Available for downloading here

Key guidance document for risk assessors, comprehensive methodology description.

 

Title: Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. 

Author: National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. Paul C. Stern and Harvey V. Fineberg, editors.

Date of Publication: 1996

Publisher: National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press.

Document Type: Book

Scope of Document: The book addresses issues associated with risk contamination. It provides guidelines and principles for informative decision-making about the wide variety of risks to human health and the quality of the environment. It includes risk characterization, judgment in the risk decision process, deliberation, analysis, integrating analysis and deliberation, and principles of risk characterization.

It provides limited information on how an ERA could be undertaken, but provides useful perspectives on risk management, particularly risk communication.

 

Title: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection. 

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: 1997.

Publisher: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA 540/R-97/013, OSWER 9355.0-69, PB97-963301. Washington, DC.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: This guidance document describes key principles and expectations, interspersed with "best practices" based on program experience, that should be consulted during the Superfund remedy selection process. These remedy selection "Rules of Thumb" are organized into three major policy areas: 1) risk assessment and risk management; 2) developing remedial alternatives; and 3) ground water response actions. The purpose of this guide is to briefly summarise key elements of various remedy selection guidance documents and policies in one publication.

Available from: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/oerr/techres/rulesthm/abstract.htm

 

Title: CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment: Reference Manual. 

Author: U.S. Department of Energy

Date of Publication: 1995

Publisher: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Policy & Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413). Washington, D.C.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: This document is intended to guide project personnel through the process of interpreting EPA guidance on the CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment and help project personnel to discuss EPA guidance with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular Department of Energy environmental restoration site.

Assessment: Largely a summary of all existing risk assessment guidance. However, only background information for ERA is presented. The document contains a useful discussion on uncertainty and an assessment of chemical mixtures.

Available from Center for Environmental Management Information: http://tis-nt.eh.doe.gov/oepa/guidance/cercla/risk_all.pdf

 

Title: Standard Default Exposure Factors; Supplemental Guidance to Human Health Evaluation Manual.

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: 1991

Publisher: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. OSWER-9285.6-03. Washington, DC.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: This guidance supplements the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A, Volume I, 1989). It was developed to reduce unwarranted variability in the exposure assumptions used to characterize potentially exposed populations in the baseline risk assessment. The document includes two attachments that cover activity specific inhalation rates and estimating adult soil ingestion in the commercial/industrial setting.

Assessment: Provide guidance for human health exposure only and consequently is of little use for ERA.

 

Title: Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Part A (Volumes I, II), B, C.

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: 1989-1991.

Publisher: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. PB90-155581, EPA 540/1-89/002. Human Health Evaluation Manual.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: The document highlights the baseline risk assessment, both human health and environmental (Part A), refinement of preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) (Part B), and the evaluation of remedial alternatives (Part C). Document was designed to assist managers, site engineers, risk assessors, and others to develop PRGs that satisfy the "threshold criteria" of the NCP, to protect human health and the environment, and to develop and use risk information to evaluate remedial alternatives during the feasibility study. Links between the human health evaluation, environmental evaluation, and the RI/FS are highlighted.

Available at http://cioma40.cin.epa.gov:6003/ (National Environmental Publications Information web site -Enter the title of the document, click on the "Search for" button, and locate the document for viewing and printing).

 

Title: Guidelines for Exposure Assessment [FRL-4129-5]

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: 1992

Publisher: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Document Type: Guideline document

Scope of Document: Guidelines intended for risk assessors in EPA, and those exposure and risk assessment consultants, contractors, or other persons who perform work under Agency contract or sponsorship.

These Guidelines supersede and replace both the Guidelines for Estimating Exposures published September 24, 1986 (51 FR 34042-34054, "1986 Guidelines") and the Proposed Guidelines for Exposure-Related Measurements (53 FR 48830-48853, "1988 Proposed Guidelines").

Guidelines establish a broad framework for exposure assessments by describing the general concepts of exposure assessment including definitions and associated units, and by providing guidance on the planning and conducting of an exposure assessment. Guidance is also provided on presenting the results of the exposure assessment and characterizing uncertainty. Although these Guidelines focus on exposures of humans to chemical substances, much of the guidance contained herein also pertains to assessing wildlife exposure to chemicals, or human exposures to biological, noise, or radiological agents.

 

Title: Guidelines for Reproductive Toxicity Risk Assessment

Author: USEPA

Date of Publication: September 1996

Publisher: Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

Document Type: Report

 

Title: Environmental Risk Assessment: An Australian Perspective

Author: Tom Beer and Frank Ziolkowski

Date of Publication: November 1995.

Publisher: Australian Environmental Protection Agency

Document Type: Paper

Scope of Document: The first step toward introducing a process of formalized risk assessment to Australian environmental agencies. It illustrates the use of risk assessment with five case studies and presents a generic framework within which environmental risk assessment in Australia can be undertaken.

Assessment: Good background for Australian approach to risk assessment.

 

Title: Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments (Interim Final).

Author: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Date of Publication: June 1997

Publisher: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. EPA 540/R-97/006, OSWER 9285.7-25, PB97-93211. Washington, DC.

Document Type: Guidance document

Scope of Document: The document is designed to facilitate defensible and appropriate scaled site specific ecological risk assessments for the Superfund program. It is due for review to be consistent with the final of the Risk Assessment Forum of the US’s document entitled Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (USEPA, 1998).

Assessment: Comprehensive guidance document for regulatory authorities and risk assessors. Complete process description and use of illustrative examples, extensive checklists for ecological sampling and guidance on conducting literature reviews, statistical uncertainty, biological sampling methods, and data analysis.

Recommendations: Key guidance document for risk assessors, comprehensive methodology description.

 

Title: Performing Ecological Risk Assessments

Author: Edward J. Calabrese and Linda A. Baldwin

Date of Publication: 1994

Publisher: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL; ISBN: 0-87371-703-1.

Document Type: Book.

Scope of Document: Excellent guidance text for performing ERA’s. Worthwhile primer.

 

Title: Introduction to Chemical Exposure and Risk Assessment

Author: Neely, W. Brock

Date of Publication: 1994

Publisher: CRC Press Inc./Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida; ISBN: 1-56670-094-9.

Document Type: Book.

Scope of Document: General entry level text describing risk assessment, suitable as background reading or primer.

 

Title: Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals Vol. V, Sovents 3

Author: Howard, Philip H.

Date of Publication: 1997

Publisher: CRC Press Inc./Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida; ISBN: 0-87371-976-X.

Document Type: Book

Scope of Document: Handbook of data for organic compounds.

 

Title: Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals

Author: D. Mackay, W. Shiu, and K. Ma

Date of Publication: 1997

Publisher: CRC-Lewis, Boca Raton.

Document Type: Book.

Scope of Document: Provides data on physical and chemical properties of organic compounds.

 

Title: Handbook of Ecotoxicology

Author: David J. Hoffman, Barnett A. Rattner, G. Allen Burton, Jr., and John Cairns, Jr. (eds)

Date of Publication: 1995

Publisher: CRC Press Inc./Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida. ISBN: 0-87371-585-3.

Document Type: Book

Scope of Document: Comprehensive and detailed text on toxicology

 

Title: Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management.

Author:

Date of Publication: 1997

Document Type: Report

Scope of Document: Final report of the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management

  • Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. Vol. 1

  • Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making. Vol 2

Available in both HTML format and PDF format at www.Riskworld.com

Assessment: Provides background for general risk assessment guidance, focusing on human health.

 

Title: Guidance for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments at Hazardous Waste Sites

Author: De Sesso, J.M

Date of Publication: 1995

Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials

Document Type: Paper in 1995 Symposium on Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Proceedings

Scope of Document: Proposes a relatively straightforward method for assessing ecological risks at hazardous waste sites. Involves a preliminary info gathering and problem formulation phase.

Three "active" phases:

Risk screening to estimate risk to keystone ecological receptors through an ecological toxicity quotient method.

Initial investigations: May include field or laboratory work to assess the health of the community of exposed receptors. May include collection and analysis of tissue samples; bioassays; bioavailability studies (or if need be a biodiversity study).

Detailed investigations that determine the potential adverse effects

Assessment: Good guidance paper for US based procedures, but overall methodology provides thorough perspective on ERA.

 

Title: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Third Volume - STP 1218.

Author: Hughes, J.S; Biddington, G.R; Mones, E (Editors)

Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials

Document Type: 1993 Symposium on Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Proceedings

Scope of Document: Ecotoxicology: Prediction and Assessment, Models in Ecological Risk Assessment, Methods Development, Fate and Effects of Chemicals, Sediment toxicology.

Assessment: Several papers relevant to ecological risk assessment including Toxicology of heavy metals in Ecological Risk Assessment; and Guidance for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments at Hazardous Waste Sites.

 

Title: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Fourth Volume - STP 1262.

Author: La Point, T.W; Price, F.T; Little, E.E (Editors)

Date of Publication: May 1996

Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials

Document Type: 1994 Symposium on Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Proceedings

Scope of Document: Wetlands, Bioindicators, Aquatic Toxicology

Assessment: A good paper presented on comparing Genetic HHR-based Soil Remediation Criteria in Canada and US – 2 Case Studies: Kangas M.J; Scott, P.K; Finlay, B.C; Paustenbach, D.J (p138)

 

Title: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Biomarkers and Risk Assessment - Fifth Volume - STP 1306.

Author: Bengtson, D.A; Henshel, D.S (Editors)

Date of Publication: October 1996

Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials

Document Type: 1995 Symposium on Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Proceedings

Scope of Document: Biomarkers, Aquatic and Sediment Toxicology, Behaviour and Risk Assessment

Assessment: Biomarker papers very specific and detailed.

Useful papers presented on PRECIS - A Probabilistic Risk Assessment System. Good overview presented on Cr in Ecological Risk Assessment.

 

Title: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment – Modelling and Risk Assessment Sixth Volume - STP 1317.

Author: Dwyer, F,J; Doan, T.R; Tinman, M.L (Editors)

Date of Publication: April 1997

Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials

Document Type: 1996 Symposium on Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Proceedings

Scope of Document: Modelling Perspectives, Ecological Risk Assessment, Human Health Risk Assessment, Biomarkers

Assessment: Several useful papers in the Ecological Risk Assessment modelling, Ecological Risk Assessment and Human Health Risk Assessment areas.

 

Title: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment – ASTM STP 1179.

Author: Landis, W.G; Hughes, J.S; Lewis, M.A (Editors)

Date of Publication: February 1993

Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials

Document Type: 1991 Symposium on Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Proceedings

Scope of Document: Ecological Risk Assessment under TSCA, Evaluating Impacts at the Population and Community levels, Biomarkers,

Marine Toxicology and Test Methods, Methods Development

Assessment: Papers presented in the above subject areas with very species-specific papers. Emphasis on managing ecological risks from Contaminated sediment.

 

Title: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment – Second Volume. ASTM STP 1216.

Author: Gorsuch, JW; Dwyer, F,J; Ingersoll, C.G; La Point, T.W (Editors)

Date of Publication: October 1993

Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials

Document Type: 1992 Symposium on Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Proceedings

Scope of Document: Aquatic Toxicology and Use of Experimental Ecosystems, Biomarkers, Effluent Toxicology and Simulated Treatment, Environmental Neurotoxicology, SAR/SQAR in the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Risk Assessment, Sediment Toxicology assessment

Assessment: Papers presented in the above subject areas. Very species-specific papers. Standard methods for Aquatic ecology. Good paper on Ecological Risk Assessment of marine antifoliant. Sediment toxicology for PCBs

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